The whites have so declared; they proclaim that the country is theirs, that the Negro should be thankful that he had so much, when so much more
might be withheld from him. He stands on a lower footing than any alien; he had no government to which he may look for protection.
Charles W. Chestnutt, essay
, 1903, reflecting on the then extant tragic effects of SCOTUS decision in Jackson v Giles upholding voter suppression like poll taxes, Plessy v Ferguson, on lynching, removal of blacks from voter rolls and public office at state and federal level, peonage, and the rise of chain gangs for profit—erasing barely 30 years of Reconstruction, passage 13th, 14th and 15 Amendments. Glad things have changed…